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A more precise mass for GJ 1214 b and the frequency of multiplanet systems around Mid-M Dwarfs

Cloutier, Ryan

Charbonneau, David

Deming, Drake

Bonfils, Xavier

The Astronomical Journal

2021

We present an intensive effort to refine the mass and orbit of the enveloped terrestrial planet GJ 1214 b using 165 radial velocity (RV) measurements taken with the HARPS spectrograph over a period of 10 years. We conduct a joint analysis of the RVs with archival Spitzer/IRAC transits and measure a planetary mass and radius of 8.17 ±0.43 M⊕ and 2.742 0.053+ 0.050 R⊕. Assuming that GJ 1214 b is an Earth-like core surrounded by a H/He envelope, we measure an envelope mass fraction of Xenv= 5.24 0.29+ 0.30%. GJ 1214 b remains a prime target for secondary eclipse observations of an enveloped terrestrial, the scheduling of which benefits from our constraint on the orbital eccentricity of <0.063 at 95% confidence, which narrows the secondary eclipse window to 2.8hr. By combining GJ 1214 with other mid-M-dwarf transiting systems with intensive RV follow up, we calculate the frequency of mid-M-dwarf planetary systems with multiple small planets and find that+ 90 21 5% of mid-M dwarfs with a known planet with massä [1, 10] M⊕ and orbital period [0.5, 50] days, will host at least one additional planet. We rule out additional planets around GJ 1214 down to 3 M⊕ within 10 days, such that GJ 1214 is a singleplanet system within these limits. This result has a+ 44 5 9 probability given the prevalence of multiplanet systems around mid-M dwarfs. We also investigate mid-M-dwarf RV systems and show that the probability that all reported RV planet candidates are real planets is <12% at 99% confidence, although this statistical argument is unable to identify the probable false positives.

Exoplanets (498)

Exoplanet structure (495)

M dwarf stars (982)

Radial velocity (1332)

Transits (1711)